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The difference between chitin, chitosan and chitosaccharide

    In recent years, with the continuous development of glycobiology, chitin, chitosan and chitosan have been discovered and put into research and development, especially in the field of health products. What’s the connection between the three? What’s the difference between them?

    Chitosan is naturally extracted from chitin in the shells of crabs, shrimp and insects. Chitin is a glycan composed of acetyl glucosamine. Chitosan is a derivative of chitin which removes part of the acetyl group after hydrolysis with strong alkali or enzymatic hydrolysis. It’s a glycan of glucosamine. Chitosan is a derivative of chitosan after degradation. Today, an oligosaccharide consisting of 20 glucosamine is called chitosan. Acetyl glucosamine or glucosamine is not glucose and is not converted to glucose in the body, so it has no adverse effect on blood sugar. The chitin is deacetylated to give chitosan, which is further degraded to chitosan.

    Chitin was discovered by the French scholar Braconno in 1811 and extracted from crustacean shells in 1823 by Ogier (() Dier) and named Chitin, translated as Chitin. Appearance and character: Light beige to white.

    Chitin is the first practical application of the product, and also the first approved “functional food” in Japan. But chitin is insoluble in water, alkali, general acid and organic solvents, only soluble in part of concentrated acid, depends on the human gastrointestinal tract chitinase, lysozyme and other action of a small part of the decomposition, so its absorption rate is low, large dosage, taking reaction is up to 70% or more. The chitin is chemically treated to remove the acetyl group and make chitosan.

    Chitosan (chitosan), chemically known as glucosamine (1-4)- 2-amino-B-D glucose, is obtained by deacetylation of chitin. In general, chitosan can be obtained by removing more than 55% of N-acetyl group.

    Shell oligosaccharides:
    Chitosan was used as raw material to degrade chitosan into small molecules, namely chitosan. Its molecular weight is about 2000Da and its polymerization degree is 2-20.

    Oligosaccharide can be directly dissolved in water, water solubility is more than 99%, the absorption rate of human body is 99.88%, after taking the dosage and reaction are greatly reduced, directly involved in the physiological regulation of human body effect is more significant than chitosan, has many functions better than high molecular weight chitosan. On the other hand, chitosan must be degraded by human enzymes to obtain some small molecular weight chitosan. Generally, the degradation rate is 1-5%, and the remaining 95% of chitosan is cleared through the human intestinal system. Therefore, chitosan is stronger than chitosan in enhancing immune function.

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