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Application of Chromium Picolinate

    Chromium Picolinate alias chromium picolinate, chromium methyl pyridine. Molecular formula: Cr (C6H4NO2) 3, relative molecular weight 418.33, purple red crystalline fine powder, stable at room temperature, slightly soluble in water, insoluble in ethanol. As an organic trivalent chromium, chromium picolinate plays an important role in the biological activity of Glucose Tolerance Factor (GTF), and is widely used as a nutritional additive in food and livestock production. It has been found that chromium picolinate can reduce blood sugar and lipid levels, and alleviate symptoms related to glucose and lipid metabolism disorders. In human nutrition health products, chromium picolinate has become the second largest nutritional supplement after calcium supplements. In livestock and poultry production, chromium picolinate supplementation can promote the growth of pigs, increase the lean meat rate of pigs, improve the immunity of livestock and poultry, enhance the anti-stress ability of the body, improve the fertility of female animals, etc. However, since Stearns et al. first reported in 1995 that chromium picolinate could cause ovarian cell distortion in Chinese hamsters, the safety of chromium picolinate has attracted much attention

    1. Application in medicine and health food
      As a medicine and health food additive, the main effects of chromium picolinate: reducing sugar and losing weight, strengthening muscle and strengthening immunity. There are few reports on the application of chromium picolinate in domestic literature. However, as early as 2003, the Ministry of Health established a method for the determination of chromium picolinate in health foods. It is clear in the standard that chromium picolinate can be added as effective ingredients in health food such as tablets or capsules, which has an important adjunctive therapeutic effect on diabetic patients. As a nutritional supplement, the minimum intake of chromium trivalent per person per day is 15μg and the maximum intake is 150μg in the “Regulations on Declaration and Evaluation of Nutrient Supplements”. Chromium picolinate is listed as a chromium source of mineral compounds. The application of chromium picolinate in developed countries, such as the United States, mainly focuses on the study of diabetes patients. Citing Scrip 2004 (2965) 22, it was shown that Nutrition 21 has conducted applied studies on chromium picolinate and found that as an insulin cofactor supplement, chromium picolinate can be used to treat diseases associated with insulin resistance. The company also published data showing that the supplement significantly reduced sugar addiction in patients with atypical depression, a typical symptom of the disease. In a double-blind 8-week study, 113 patients were randomized to receive chromium picolinate (400μg/d for 2 weeks, followed by 600μg/d for 6 weeks) or placebo. Results showed that while both groups showed significant improvement from baseline, the treatment group did significantly better than the placebo group in improving sugar addiction, weight change, obsessive thinking, and rejection sensitivity.
    2. Application as a feed additive
      The application of chromium picolinate is mostly used as feed additive in livestock and poultry industry. At present, there is no specific standard for the chromium requirement of livestock and poultry, and the commonly used additive dose is 10-6 grade. Existing experimental studies have shown that adding chromium picolinate to livestock and poultry can show good application effects: promoting the growth of animals, improving the quality of animal products, especially the quality of ketone body, improving the reproductive performance of female animals, increasing the litter size, improving the function of endocrine system, enhancing the immunity and anti-stress ability of the body. Supplementation of 200μg/kg chromium picolinate in the finishing diet can significantly improve carcass quality, increase lean meat percentage and reduce back fat thickness. The results are similar to β-stimulant but not as good as growth hormone injection. Chromium supplementation can increase the concentration of endogenous growth hormone in pigs. When chromium picolinate, chromium nicotinate and chromium yeast were added to the diets of growing-finishing pigs at the concentration of 0.2mg/kg, the results showed that the three kinds of organic chromium had significant differences in daily gain and feed to gain ratio of growing-finishing pigs. In order to improve carcass quality, it is generally accepted that it is best to add chromium in the last 6-9 weeks of finishing period, and the best dosage is 200μg/kg. It was found that supplementation of 0.2mg/kg chromium picolinate in the diet of 3-week-old broilers can increase the content of ketone body protein and reduce the content of fat. The results showed that diet supplemented with 800μg/kg organic chromium (chromium picolinate) can increase the body weight, daily gain and feed conversion rate of 56d broilers by 7.5%, 11.9% and 6.5%, respectively, which indicated that chromium supplementation can improve the weight gain and feed conversion rate of broilers reared at high temperature (30-35 ℃). In the control group, 0.25mg/kg chromium pyridinate, 0.50mg/kg chromium pyridinate, 0.25mg/kg chromium citrate and 0.50mg·kg-1 chromium citrate were added. The experiment was divided into two stages: early growth stage (1 ~ 28d age) and growth stage (29 ~ 42d age). In the growth stage, compared with the control group, only 0.50 mg/kg chromium picolinate significantly increased the daily gain and decreased the feed to gain ratio, showing the same results from the whole stage. Compared with the control group, 0.50mg/kg chromium citrate and 0.50mg/kg chromium picolinate significantly increased the leg muscle percentage of broilers in the early growth stage, but had no significant effect on the growth stage. The research of chromium picolinate mainly focuses on common feeding animals, and the research of organic chromium on ruminant animals is mostly cattle, and mainly studies its anti-stress and improve immunity effect. Studies on other animals, which are relatively small in number, have been reported, but far less in-depth than those on pigs and chickens, and many practical problems remain to be discussed in the future.

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